|Title||Phagosome maturation: Aging with pH, lysosome-associated membrane proteins, and cholesterol, while staying young with Burkholderia cenocepacia|
Phagocytosis is an innate immune response that is paramount in the clearance of pathogenic particles. Recognition of target particles by phagocytic receptors expressed on phagocytes induces modifications in the underlying actin cytoskeleton to form pseudopods that encircle and internalize the target particle into a membrane bound organelle called the phagosome. The nascent phagosome undergoes a maturation sequence that is characterized by substantial remodeling of the membrane and its luminal contents through interactions with components of the endocytic pathway, culminating in an acidic and hydrolytic organelle capable of digesting and eliminating pathogens. Phagosome maturation is a complicated pathway that involves many protein and lipid signaling molecules. Several factors that influence phagosome maturation particularly the participation of pH, lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2, cholesterol, in addition to the survival and escape mechanisms used by, Burkholderia cenocepacia were explored. All three tenets are essential for phagosome maturation, although each factor has different mechanistic consequences. Acidification alters Rab5 activation, while ablation of LAMPs and accumulation of cholesterol interferes with various aspects of Rab7 turnover in phagosomes and/or endosome membranes. Moreover, Burkholderia cenocepacia, an intracellular pathogen, inactivates Rab7 on phagosome membranes from within the vacuole lumen. Herein, mechanisms that govern phagosome maturation are explored and several molecules are added to the long list of essential players in this complicated pathway.
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